Completed R&D Projects

Abstract of the research projects completed during the last five years

Sl. No. Name of the R&D Project completed Outcomes/deliverables of the research in brief Organization/Institutes
1 Assessment of low cycle thermal fatigue damage in steam turbine during transient Under this project a process for assessment of the damage of turbine components based on low cycle thermal fatigue was developed. The outcome of the research project helped in standardization of quantitative evaluation of low cycle fatigue damage and provided better guidance in carrying out Remaining Life Assessment (RLA) of steam turbine TRC Nagpur, CPRI Unit
2 Studies to Establish Critical Resistive Leakage Current of Gapless ZnO Polymeric Surge Arresters for In-service Failure Prediction It is crucial to determine the threshold of resistive leakage current that would require the removal of a ZnO Polymeric Surge Arrester from service. This is essential to prevent unexpected explosions of the arrester components in case of sudden failure, which could cause damage to nearby substation equipment and harm personnel. As part of this project, an electro-thermal model of the arrester has been used to propose a stable operating point and identify the point of thermal instability. Furthermore, specific criteria have been established to determine the Critical Resistive Leakage Current (CRLC) and Observation Current (OBCUR). HVD, CPRI, Bangalore 
3 A Laboratory Investigation for Standardization of Testing Method for Pollution Performance of Polymer Insulators In this study a practical approach has been developed to determine the performance of polymers with pollutant coating. A proper coating methodology has also been adopted to test the insulator for its pollution performance in its completely hydrophilic condition which represents the worst condition for the insulator. This work is significant in order to test the pollution performance of the polymeric insulator which is essential for designing and selection of polymeric insulators. HVD, CPRI, Banalgore 
4 Assessment of Pollution level and Design of External Insulation for High Voltage Transmission System The influence of profile on the pollution performance of insulator strings has been studied under this project by conducting series of the maximum withstand severity tests on 15 different profiles of cap-and-pin insulator strings used in 220 kV and 400 kV systems. Two novel insulator designs has been developed under this project. The insulators have demonstrated better pollution performance than the existing ones HVD, CPRI, Banalgore 
5 Design and Development of 10 kA 1000 V Synchronized Static switch for Evaluation of Breaking Performance of Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) Make switches are required in Short-circuit test stations in order to achieve perfect fault making instances. ln this project a 10kA 1kV Thyristor AC switch is designed and developed which can be used as a very fast Make Switch for short-circuit test applications. The power circuit consists of antiparallel thyristors in each phase and is so designed such that it can withstand repetitive surge currents of 20kA for 50ms. Control circuit is purely designed in-house and developed to precisely achieve switch closing at specific point on the wave. SCL, CPRI Bangalore 
6 A study on the effect of nanoparticles on the critical parameters of insulating fluids Under this project novel nano-fluids were developed which exhibited improved performance in terms of dielectric permittivity.  
7 Development of flame retardant polymer composites for insulating applications and Nano Dielectrics Under this project flame retardant polymer composites for 33 kV distribution power cable application has been developed. Further, egg shell nano particles were used as filler material for the flame retardant composites. The developed composites were analyzed for structural, morphological, electrical, thermal, mechanical, physical and chemical and flame retardant properties. The performance was at found to be par with the Mg(OH)2 Nano Particles used for similar application. DMD, CPRI, Bangalore 
8 Hydrogen Fuel Generation by Splitting of Water using Nanosized Metal Doped Layered Titanates for Fuel Cell Applications Keeping in mind the advent of commercial PV Installations, this project has developed a maximum power point tracking algorithm using Artificial Intelligence models for PV systems. Anna University, Chennai, T.N  
9 FPGA Based Development of Different MPPT Algorithms for a Stand-Alone Photo Voltaic System using Artificial Intelligence Keeping in mind the advent of commercial PV Installations, this project has developed a maximum power point tracking algorithm using Artificial Intelligence models for PV systems.  National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK) Surathkal 
10 Wide - Area Damping Controller Design for Power Systems This project focused on investigating the impact of delays caused by wide-area signals on the performance of Wide-area Power System Stabilizers (WPSS). Two benchmark power system models were constructed in MATLAB-Simulink, and various analyses were conducted based on these models. Modal analysis of delay systems was used to compare the effectiveness of synchronized and non-synchronized feedback for WPSS. The influence of the order of Pade approximation of the delay on the system's actual pole location was also examined. For non-synchronized WPSS, controller design was carried out using the H∞ control framework with regional pole placement, and the designed controllers were evaluated through simulations. Additionally, the project addressed the problem of online identification of oscillatory modes, particularly when the actual power system model is unavailable. A novel mode estimation method incorporating adaptive filtering was developed, which demonstrated improved robustness and accuracy compared to other mode identification methods. National Institute of Technology (NIT) Rourkela, Orissa  
11 Dielectric diagnosis of EHV bushings using frequency domain spectroscopy (FDS) including cause identification for abnormal conditions of the bushing Dielectric diagnosis of Extra High Voltage bushings was carried out using Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) under this project. Transformers of various ages were tested using FDS to measure the variations of Tan delta values of bushings over a wide range of frequencies and suggest the replacement strategy for the bushings with high, moderate and negative Tan delta. Around 133 of transformers were tested as part of this study, and defective bushings were identified and recommended for replacement TANGEDCO - Chennai 
12 Compilation of Data on Latest Technologies in Geological & Geotechnical Investigations and Problems Faced & Mitigation Measures adopted during Execution of Hydroelectric Projects Under this project compilation of a compendium of data and measures taken at various hydroelectric projects with regard to problems faced during project construction and its mitigation methods was carried out. The project report brought out advanced tools & techniques and best practices -in geological & geotechnical investigation during execution of hydroelectric projects. It is expected that the report will help in enhancing efficiency of project execution Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi 
13 Studies on Development of Guidelines for Best Practices in Water & Waste Usage in Coal Based Thermal Power Plants As an outcome of this project “Guidelines for Optimization of Water & Wastewater usage in coal based Thermal Power Plants” has been prepared and released. The report is based on the findings for 4 Thermal Power Stations namely Kota TPS (210 MW), Sikka TPS (250 MW), Bhuswal TPS (500 MW) and NTPC Barh STPS (660 MW) Excellent Enhancement Centre for Indian Power Sector, New Delhi 
14 Reduction of Switching Transients in Doubly Fed Induction Machines used in large pumped Storage Plan Operating procedure for smooth starting and regenerative braking of a large rated Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) pump turbine unit was studied in detail under this project. Starting and braking operations were simulated in Matlab Simulink toolbox. Furthermore, an energy efficient starting strategy by injecting DC voltage to stator terminals (instead of short circuiting at starting) was developed and tested. From the test results, it was observed that the developed energy efficient starting strategy has an ability to save 35 percent of energy consumption (during starting) in comparison with conventional start-up. Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 
15 Dielectric nano-composites for capacitors applications Under this project Nano ceramics were prepared by oxalate precursor route. Further the Nano ceramics were doped with suitable materials. The doped nano ceramics were tested for applicability in capacitor applications. Finally a lab scale prototype capacitor was fabricated with the most optimal nano-ceramic DMD, CPRI, Bangalore 
16 Development and Demonstration of an Adaptive Protection Scheme for Distribution Systems under High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources A novel protection algorithm has been developed under this project. The algorithm has also been realized in a hardware prototype and tested at CPRI PSD, CPRI Bangalore 
17 A study on online partial discharge measurement of power cables using inductive couplers and noise elimination by wavelet technique Partial Discharge measurements were conducted on various power cable systems and the partial discharge signals collected were evaluated for noise elimination and feature extraction. Studies on simulated PD signals were conducted for noise elimination with discrete wavelet Techniques, stationary wavelet & wavelet packet techniques. The effectiveness of the algorithms were also verified. CDD, CPRI, Bangalore 
18 Hybrid HVDC Systems for Multi Infeed Applications Some of the issues of concern in a Multi Infeed High voltage Direct Current (MI-HVDC) system are increased over-voltages, high risk of commutation failure, voltage and power instabilities and AC/DC fault recovery. These issues are of serious concern for a MI-HVDC system. The advantages of VSC - HVDC link, in terms of avoiding commutation failure, reducing harmonics and an ability to invert into a weak AC system have encouraged the project team to propose an LCC-VSC hybrid HVDC link to replace one of the LCC-LCC HVDC link in the MIDC system. The dynamic analysis of the MIDC system is carried out for different controllers at the VSC. It is concluded here that by using one hybrid link the overall performance of the MIDC system can be improved by a large extent. Replacing one LCC inverter with a VSC inverter not only reduces the cost as compared to VSC-VSC HVDC link but also improves the performance of the overall system while inverting into weak AC system M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore 
19 Inferring the dielectric and partial discharge characteristics of nano fluids for power transformer applications The main aim of the study was to evaluate the dielectric and partial discharge characteristics of nano modified mineral oils and vegetable oils such as corn oil, palm oil, sunflower at different silica nano filler percentage weight concentrations. The Break Down Voltage, Average positive Lightning Impulse breakdown voltage and Partial Discharge Inception Voltage of nano modified oils were studied and were found to be significantly higher when compared with pure oil. Sona College of Technology, Salem 
20 Investigation on the operation and control of multiple distributed generation sources in micro grid (Phase II) The project presents a technique for detecting islanding and implementing reclosure based on Phase-Locked Loop (PLL). The technique enables smooth transition between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. Additionally, a control scheme is developed for islanded operation of Distributed Generation (DG) systems using droop and virtual complex impedance. The performance of the islanding detection technique, reclosure, and control scheme with droop is evaluated using a microgrid model consisting of three inverter-based DG systems. The report includes detailed modeling and test parameters for each component of the microgrid. The microgrid's performance is analyzed using the Typhoon HIL-402 Real-Time Hardware-in-Loop (HIL) platform. Furthermore, the islanding detection scheme's performance is examined under various power quality disturbances, and the results are compared with other PLL designs reported in the literature. NITK Suratkal, Mangalore 
21 Development of intelligent relaying scheme for microgrids with DG penetration Under this project a wide area based protective relaying scheme has been developed, which will be able to protect the power network with significant penetration of DGs. The protective scheme is designed to function under different operating conditions (grid-connected and islanding mode) and for different type of faults including symmetrical and asymmetrical faults, high resistance fault and remote end location faults. The relay developed is able to distinguish between the transient condition and grid islanding resynchronization condition from fault condition Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar
22 Characterization of Electric Double Layer Super Capacitor with CNT-conducting Polymers / Metal Oxide Composites and Nano Dielectrics Under this project PANI (Polyaniline)/TiO2 nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications were synthesized by interfacial polymerization method. Superior electrochemical performance makes the PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites promising electrode material for future generation energy storage. PANI/TiO2 device provides high-power density to achieve almost instant charge in seconds. A lab scale prototype of capacitor has also been developed under the project R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore
23 Design, development and deployment of grid interfaced power conversion unit for solar -wind power generation system A grid interfaced power conversion unit for solar -wind power generation system has been developed and deployed at the implementing organization under this project. Current-Voltage and Power-Voltage characteristics of the system for different solar insolation and temperature under normal/shaded conditions for solar PV system have been studied. Power conversion unit, Z source bidirectional converter has been developed for dc voltage regulation from wind and solar PV resources and Z source inverter has been used for dc to ac power conversion for feeding AC electric power to the grid. Steady state output DC voltage/current is monitored for wind generator and PV system. Output AC phase voltage and current at various load conditions, its harmonic spectrum, active and reactive power injected by the inverter into the grid and entire real time data measurement were carried out. Arunai Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai
24 Development of Solid State Transformer as a Wind Power Interfacing Device A multifunctional Solid State Transformer prototype has been developed (for 1kVA output) which has active power control, reactive power compensation, voltage conversion, bi-directional power flow and fault detection & isolation using simple control strategy. National Institute of Technology, Calicut
25 Development of Smart Grid, Controllers for Hybrid Renewable Distributed Generator for a Stand-alone and Grid-connected Operation Addressing Reliability and Power Quality Issues Under this project a Photo Voltaic (PV) and Wind energy generation system were designed to operate as both standalone and integrated system. A new topology for Parallel Operation of Renewable Energy Based Distributed Generator system has been proposed under the project. The problem of Partial Shading Detection in PV Array was also addressed in the project. Maximum Power Tracking System using artificial intelligent techniques were also developed in the project. National Institute of Technology, Puducherry
26 Studies to improve the performance of fault location algorithm for multi-location shunt fault in transmission line-A case study of Chhattisgarh state The project achieved several milestones in the field of fault detection, classification, and diagnosis. A real-time fault detection and classification algorithm based on MODWT (Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform) was developed specifically for power swing scenarios. Furthermore, a MODWT-based fault detection and classification scheme was implemented, focusing on cross-country faults and evolving faults using a real-time digital simulator. The project also contributed a fault diagnosis scheme for common shunt faults, emphasizing the high-impedance fault syndrome. Additionally, an ensemble classifier model based on DWT-BGDT (Discrete Wavelet Transform and Bagging Decision Trees) was created for accurate detection of cross-country faults and evolving faults. Comparative studies were conducted to develop an intelligent fault locator for common shunt faults. The project introduced a novel decision tree algorithm based on DCT-BDT (Discrete Cosine Transform and Boosted Decision Trees) for effective location of common shunt faults. Furthermore, a fault location scheme for cross-country faults in a dual-circuit line was developed, utilizing an optimized regression tree. Lastly, a data-mining model utilizing an optimized ensemble of regression trees was proposed for the location of evolving faults. National Institute of Technology Raipur
27 Development of a dsPIC based efficient system for simultaneous active power sharing and reactive power compensation in a grid-connected photovoltaic system A MATLAB/SIMULINK model for a 2 kWp, 360 V PV array based grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPVS) has been developed under this project and simulation based studies were performed. The design and fabrication of sensing and control circuitry were carried out. A dsPIC/FPGA based power flow control algorithm has been developed. The developed technology would help in scaling-up the penetration of PV power in low-voltage distribution system requiring minimum system maintenance and provide more flexibility in system operation Mizoram University
28 High performance PFC based LED Drivers working under Stringent AC Supply The project has accomplished significant milestones, including the implementation of a new Constant Voltage LED driver specifically designed for festival LED lighting systems. Additionally, a Constant Voltage Constant Current LED driver has been developed for both industrial and domestic LED lighting systems. These drivers have demonstrated reliable performance even under voltage fluctuations and distortions. Notably, the drivers are equipped with voltage surge protection for power electronic devices, boasting an impressive response time of 1 microsecond. Furthermore, the drivers have exhibited enhanced Power Factor Correction (PFC) and improved power quality at the source or grid side. Government Engineering College Bikaner
29 Government Engineering College Bikaner Under this project a new processing technique for silicone rubber product has been developed and also studied for its pollution performance. Further an 11kV spiral insulator design for experimental trials has been designed and developed. The Electrical and mechanical properties of the 11 kv insulators, as per the standards are evaluated with internal tests. Also, hollow core 66kV insulators – Single shed and double shed has also been developed and demonstrated through the same process. The process is expected to reduce the production cost of the insulators during mass manufacturing. Further some insulators have been installed at the DISCOM premises for testing. Raychem RPG
30 Power Conversion, Control and Protection Technologies for Micro-Grid The project resulted in the development of various technologies in different areas: Photovoltaic Conversion Technologies: • A Reconfigurable Grid-Battery Tie Inverter (RGTI) was created, serving as a photovoltaic grid-tie inverter when connected to the grid. It also functions as an advanced charger, supporting external UPS systems and enhancing their performance during power outages. • High-frequency link solar photovoltaic conversion technology was developed. • Soft switching techniques were implemented for the inverter devices. • The project achieved the compact isolation of the output from the solar inverter. Phase Converter Technology: • Power converter platforms ranging from 3-30kW power levels were developed with advanced protection features. • Active phase conversion technology with high efficiency was implemented. Wind Turbine Emulation: • Control mechanisms were established to mimic the characteristics of a wind turbine using a Squirrel Cage Induction Machine (SCIM). • Technologies were devised to emulate motors with significantly lower inertia than actual wind turbines. • Innovative inertia control and compensation schemes were developed, including 1 degree of freedom control (1-DOF) and superior 2-DOF control. Battery Converter Systems: • Battery health enhancement technologies were devised specifically for advanced batteries and hybrid ultracapacitors. Micro-grid Protective Relays: • Linear programming technology was employed in the Central Master controller (MC) to coordinate the protective relays within a micro-grid, utilizing three different IEEE standard curves. • The MC controlled bi-directional over-current protection. • Relay coordination methods were established for various configurations of ring-type micro-grids. • Laboratory automated re-synchronization techniques were implemented between the synchronous machine Distributed Generation (DG) and the main grid. IISc Bangalore
31 A Novel Optoelectronic Technique for Online Partial Discharge Monitoring of Transformers Under this project laboratory investigations were carried out in controlled conditions to understand the detection capability of optoelectronic technique for different kinds of discharges. An experimental setup consisting of collimating lens, fluorescent optical fiber, common optical fiber cable, fiber optic coupler, photomultiplier tube (PMT) modules and pc-based oscilloscope for data acquisition was designed, developed and used for measurements. With best,-choice of PMT Module, Common Optical Fiber and Fluorescent Optical Fiber combination investigations were carried to generate and detect corona discharge in oil medium with and without press board. It was observed that novel optoelectronic technique is suitable for online PD monitoring of transformers. CDD, CPRI, Bangalore
32 Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based Fault Signature Analysis for fault detection and location assessment using measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) The following has been achieved under the project: • Development of single objective, multi objective optimal PMU placement algorithms, multistage PMU placement • Fault detection methodology with PMU data • Fault classification using artificial intelligent algorithms like SVM. • Fault location assessment using PMU data • Validation of the results using experimental lab setup • Developed algorithms have been validated using real time simulator with virtual and hardware PMUs with the help of a lab setup. • PQ modeling of asynchronous generator modeling, algorithms for optimal placement of single and multiple DG’s have been done, which are useful for incorporation of renewable energies in state estimation algorithm. CPRI, Bangalore
33 Evaluation of the co-firing characteristics of Alternative Fuels mixed with high ash Indian coals for power generation applications Under this project Co-firing characteristics of high ash Indian coals with different proportion of identified biomass (Coconut shell, Ground nut shell, Coffee husk and Rice husk) has been studied and the results were documented. The Optimum mix ratio has been proposed wherein high calorific value was obtained with less ash content as compared to 100% coal. MTD, CPRI, Bangalore
34 Development of LDPE, MDPE and HDPE Nano-composite for DC Cable Application Under this project various compositions of LDPE, MDPE and HDPE Nano-composites were prepared and tested. The optimal composition of the nano-composite that can be used for DC Cable application has been reported under the project. CPRI, Bangalore
35 Study of AC Corona Phenomena and power loss for 1200 kV conductors and characterization of corona discharges from line / substation components Under this project three different schemes are used for acquisition of corona current from the cage. Acquisition of cage current in synchronization with applied test voltage has been successfully carried out. The optical fibre cable along with media converters are used to reduce the measurement error as much as possible and also provided sufficient safety to the equipment and personnel during measurement. All these three schemes are used for accurate acquisition of cage current and it is found that the corona loss displayed in capacitance and tan delta measuring bridge has better agreement with actual value. UHVRL, Hyderabad
36 Study of Electric Field Environment of HVDC Transmission Lines Under this project the following were the inference drawn: • A computational approach was used that successfully predicts the variations in electric field and ionic current at ground levels. • Regardless of applied voltage polarities, the measured magnitude of ionic current was found to be inversely proportional to the height and diameter of the conductor, and the computational results demonstrate the same trend. • The computational calculations align well with the measured data and results published in existing literature. • Although specific limits for DC electric field under HVDC transmission lines are not specified, the measured electric field levels are comparable to those reported in literature for transmission lines. The electric field levels exhibit minimal variation with ambient conditions, while ion current densities display significant variability. • Further understanding of DC electric field and ion current distribution under HVDC transmission lines is required to be carried out with long-term measurements conducted in diverse climatic conditions. UHVRL, Hyderabad, CPRI Unit
37 Evaluation of re-ignition circuit by replacing the air gap with vacuum interrupter bottles Under this project a comprehensive review was carried out on types of synthetic test circuits used for testing high voltage circuit breakers and also described the design requirements of re-ignition circuits for the synthetic test of the circuit breakers with long arcing times. The simulations were carried out in PSCAD for understanding the influence of different elements used in re-ignition circuits. A prototype has been designed and fabricated with vacuum bottles as part of switching elements for injecting the re-ignition current pulses in to the circuit breaker to extend the arc. The set up is installed at High Power Laboratory, CPRI Bengaluru. HPL, CPRI, Bangalore
38 Development and demonstration of ultra-capacitors and lead-acid batteries based hybrid storage for a 5 kW solar- powered micro-grid A 3kW Solar Powered Micro Grid utilizing a HUC + Battery-based Energy Storage System has been developed and demonstrated. The system incorporates PV panels, batteries, inverters, and loads, with the integration of the HUC facilitated through an Energy Management System (EMS). The HUC has undergone characterization testing, including Reference Capacity, Leakage Current, and Self-discharge tests. Additionally, the complete system has undergone application testing to analyze the performance of both the HUC and the battery. Various load types were employed for the testing, including Laboratory Lighting & Fan Loads, Traction load for a forklift, and Pulse power applications with a 1hp Surge load alongside a 3kW base load. CD, CPRI, Bangalore
39 Development and demonstration of 1 k W soluble lead redox flow battery system for solar energy and retrieval As a result of this project, a 100W soluble redox flow battery has been successfully developed. A laboratory prototype of the battery was created and subjected to testing. The promising results indicate the feasibility of scaling up the technology for a 1kW system in the future. EATD, CPRI, Bangalore
40 Development of High Temperature Low Sag Nano Composite Core A novel alternative to existing ACSR conductors using hybrid epoxy composites core, has been developed under this project. Extensive characterization and experimental tests were carried out to evaluate electro thermal and thermo mechanical properties of hybrid epoxy composites used in the core. The results indicate that the HTLS nano composite core developed has better electrical performance compared to that of the ACSR line in terms of reduced operating temperature, and thermal conductivity and sag. The findings of this study indicate that with the use of hybrid nano composite flexural strength and storage modulus can be improved. This can increase the efficiency and life span of the transmission lines Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur
41 Development and AC Characterization of 2nd Generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) based Modular SFCL System A modular Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) unit with HTS tapes has been developed under this project. A lab-scale fault generating facility has also been designed and developed for characterizing the HTS based modular unit at 77K. Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi
42 Development of Control Strategies for Grid Connected PV System utilizing the MPPT and Reactive Power Capability Under this project novel PV solar farm simulation models with advance controllers (such as PLL control, current control, dc-link voltage control and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control schemes) have been developed for distribution grid studies. The developed model has been found to be better than existing models in terms of simplicity, accuracy and smoothness in representing the PV characteristics. A methodology for feeding the reactive power to the grid along with the real power by utilizing the capacity of the dc-ac power converter of the grid connected PV system was also developed. Further a methodology for obtaining P-Q capability curve has been developed under the project. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
43 Day Ahead Solar Power Forecasting for Indian Climatic Zone A robust predictive model has been created to forecast day-ahead solar irradiance based on a comprehensive dataset spanning 15 years. The model incorporates the seasonal variations of solar irradiance and demonstrates a high R2 value, indicating its strong accuracy and reliability. Power Research Institute, Bangalore
44 Erosion-Corrosion Studies on Thermal Sprayed Conventional and Nanostructured Coatings Under this project various coatings were developed for Stainless Steel substrate with optimised process conditions. The structural and morphological features of the above coatings were characterized. Erosion-corrosion behaviour of coatings has been quantified. Further the coating with the best performance on erosion-corrosion has been reported. Indian Institute of Technology - Madras
45 Characterization and development of silicone rubber-EPDM Nano composites as outdoor insulating material for EHV applications Work studies the enhancement in the performance of the elastomeric blends of Silicone rubber and Ethylene-Propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) on the addition of montmorillonite nano clay in different compositions. The effect of variation in the composition of the individual rubbers and nano clay are studied. An optimal composition of the elastomeric nanocomposites, which renders the least deterioration and endures the different tests performed during the study is selected and a prototype of an outdoor insulator has been manufactured. Indian Institute of Technology - Madras
46 Adaptive protection schemes for micogrids with grid - connected and islanded mode of operation The main contributions of the project are the development islanding detection techniques and adaptive DOCR protection techniques for the microgrid. A passive islanding detection technique is developed using delta phase angle based principal components. In this work, the non-detective zone of the proposed method is compared with the conventional over/under-voltage/frequency based passive islanding detection techniques. A typical IEEE 13-bus and IEEE 34-bus systems have been used to simulate the microgrid environment. The proposed techniques are implemented on a dSPACE processor and CMS-356 (voltage and current amplifier), which are connected to a Real-Time Digital Simulator to carry out the hardware-in-the-loop tests. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
47 Experimental and computational analysis of heat sink application for optimal performance by developing low cost natural filler reinforced composite material Under this project a hybrid composite material was prepared using chemically treated bamboo and graphene nanoplatelet. With the chemical treatment of bamboo filler, significant improvement in the morphological structure was observed by removing a definite amount of hemicellulose, lignin, wax, and oils covered on the outer surface. With the new material a heat sink has been designed and developed under the project. The heat sink has been tested for LED applications and found to be satisfactory. NIT, Silchar
48 Development of Blue Light Emitting Diode packages Under this project a Chip-on-board blue LED package has been developed under this project of 5, 10 and 15 w rating. The compete procedure has been carried out in the lab and will be useful for indigenous development of LED packages University of Baroda, Vadodara
49 Modular Induction Stove Design for Indian Cookware A proof-of-principle prototype of a curved induction stove was fabricated that used the same power electronic circuit as a commercial stove used. The bowl-shaped coil of the curved induction stove prototype ensured that a uniform distance is maintain between the kadai and the coil, thus developing a uniform magnetic coupling with the iron kadai. This was demonstrated first using the numerical simulations and later an actual prototype was developed. Further, thermal imaging was carried out during experiments with and without water for heating and the results were in line with the simulations. Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar
50 Development of a selection methodology for road header and tunnel boring machine in different geological conditions for rapid tunneling The following outputs have been achieved through the project: • A scientific methodology for selecting and evaluating the performance of Roadheader/Tunnel Boring Machines in different geological and rockmass conditions has been developed. This methodology enables efficient and rapid tunnel drivage by considering the specific characteristics of the rocks involved. • A state-of-the-art test setup has been established at the Department of Mining Engineering, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, serving as a national facility. This advanced setup, coupled with computational tools, supports education and research at undergraduate, postgraduate, and PhD levels. By equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, it contributes to the production of high-quality professionals. Furthermore, the experiments conducted as part of the rock excavation course hold the potential for future commercial applications. • The facilities at CSIR-CIMFR, Nagpur, including AE (Acoustic Emission), SRT (Slake Durability Test), and risk analysis software, enhance the understanding of intact rock and rock mass from the perspective of rock excavation. These facilities provide valuable insights for research purposes. • Guidelines have been developed based on comprehensive data analysis. These guidelines serve as a valuable resource for utilities, researchers, and designers of road headers, offering practical recommendations and insights for their projects. CSIR-CIMFR & IIT (ISM)
51 Development of polymer nano-composites for EHVDC Lines and diagnostics adopting laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) The research findings can be summarized as follows: • The inception voltage of corona discharge caused by water droplets on epoxy nanocomposites increases with the frequency of the applied supply voltage. Additionally, the Corona Inception Voltage (CIV) demonstrates a direct relationship with the contact angle. • Analysis of the study reveals that epoxy nanocomposites filled with ion trapping particles exhibit the highest contact angle and CIV. They are followed by titania-filled epoxy nanocomposites and the base epoxy resin. This trend remains consistent in both virgin and corona-aged specimens. • Under unaged conditions, silica-micro composites (MC) perform better than silica-nano micro composites (NMC), followed by wollastonite-epoxy composites (IN). However, upon corona aging, IN performs better than MC and NMC due to its filler content, which reduces damage caused by corona aging. It is also observed that relying solely on contact angle measurements is insufficient for predicting variations in corona inception voltage under specific conditions. • Charge accumulation studies indicate a significant reduction in both the charge retention capability and mean lifetime of the samples after corona aging. IN demonstrates better performance under aged conditions among the three samples, with a higher mean lifetime indicating less surface carbonization. • LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) analysis provides information on the elemental composition of the epoxy nanocomposite material. Plasma temperature and threshold fluence serve as useful indicators for classifying material performance. Additionally, the measured plasma temperature correlates with the hardness of the material. The IN specimen shows the least damage from laser abrasion, suggesting higher resistance to discharges, which aligns with the findings from the water droplet discharge damage study. IIT Madras, Chennai
52 IEC 61850 Compliant SF6 Monitoring System for Gas Insulated Switchgear A comprehensive set of studies was conducted to achieve the objectives of detecting gas leakage and humidity content inside a SF6 gas vessel of a GIS (Gas Insulated Substation). Two methods were employed for humidity detection. Initially, a smart humidity sensor was developed utilizing a polyvinyl alcohol sensing film deposited on a polyimide substrate. The design aspects of the sensor were verified using COMSOL Multiphysics in comparison to the fabricated prototype. Additionally, a capacitive sensor was fabricated using fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass as the substrate and silver as the upper electrode. A thin film of porous alumina (Al2O3) served as the sensing layer for moisture detection at the ppm scale. To address the second objective of gas monitoring and leakage detection, a dual-element ultrasonic sensor and a capacitive piezoelectric pressure transducer were employed. These sensors respectively detected and controlled gas density leakage within a limit of 0.5% per annum. The functionality of the sensor was validated using the simulation tool WAVE2000. The effort put into designing, analyzing, and developing the ultrasonic-based gas density sensor has resulted in the publication of a patent. Sai University of Technology, Burla (VSSUT)
53 Design, Development and Validation of a New Adaptive Digital Relaying Scheme for Power Transformer A new Fault Detection Ratio (FDR) based method has been developed, derived from quartiles of superimposed differential currents, for the protection of power transformer. It is demonstrated that the derived FDR is capable of distinguishing all types of internal faults from magnetizing inrush and over-excitation conditions with the exception of turn-to-turn fault in the presence of the inrush current. The suggested technique detects winding and inter-winding faults including turn-to-turn faults within one power frequency cycle. It is not vulnerable to the influence of CT saturation in case of external as well as internal fault conditions. It remains secure for all types of magnetizing inrush and overexcitation situations including noise present in the acquired signals. At the same time, it is equally applicable on different rating and winding connection of power transformer. Moreover, verification of its performance on actual field data (containing energization of faulted transformer and magnetizing inrush condition) reveals its correctness in detecting internal faults and immunity against nuisance trip during non-internal faults Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 
54 High capacitance (50F to 200F) graphene supercapacitors for storage of power from Renewable energy sources  In this project, various types of graphene supercapacitors ranging from 50F to 100F lead type and 110 F to 200F snap in type supercapacitors equivalent to commercial supercapacitors were developed. Graphene supercapacitor modules (16V, 70F) were also prepared. The process for the fabrication of graphene supercapacitors was also developed. As an outcome of the project, cost effective graphene supercapacitors having capacitance in the range of 50F to 200F having good reliability were developed. The specifications of the products proposed and achieved in the project were comparable to the commercial   CMET, Thrissur 
55 Development of High-power and High-energy Density Solid-state Hybrid-energy Storage Device  The following Proto-type Devices have been Fabricated and Demonstrated: • Carbon-based Supercapacitors: • Achieved Energy Density: 88 Wh kg-1 • Achieved Power Density: 2200 W kg-1 • Hybrid device: • Achieved Energy Density: 210 Wh kg-1 • Achieved Power Density: 11.7 kW kg-1   Pondicherry University, Puducherry 
56 Investigations on Control Flexibilities of Grid Integrated Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System  Under the project dedicated control algorithms have been developed for • Effective utilization of inverter size by providing hierarchy based ancillary services. • FRT techniques for various faults with harmonic compensation (Active power oscillation approach & Reactive power oscillation approach). A Laboratory scale prototype has been developed for the study of field investigation.   National Institute of Technology, Warangal 
57 Post Combustion Carbon Capture & sequestration (CCS) Plant on a Coal Fired Thermal Power Plant – Feasibility Study  The following set objectives have been fulfilled in the project: 1) Installation of Solar Integrated Carbon Capture Pilot Plant of Capacity 45 kg/hr. of CO2 (250 kg/hr. Flue Gas drawn from the associated Coal Fired Boiler installed for the purpose). 2) Feasibility Study of Installation of Retrofit Post Combustion Carbon Capture Plant on 500 MW ANPARA B TPS – 2x500 MW in Singrauli region of MP The feasibility study has examined various options like: o Captured CO2 to depleted Coal mines o Captured CO2 for EOR o Other NOVEL Options of Sequestration 3) Pilot Study of Production of Multi-purpose Fuels, Production of Hydrogen and Bio-diesel through Algae Route   RKDF University, Bhopal 
58 Design of Fault Tolerance and Reconfiguration Control for Megawatt Power Electronic Converters Fed Variable Speed Pumped Storage Unit  Under the project software and hardware-based fault-tolerant schemes for variable speed pumped storage power plants, concerning open switch failure in power semiconductor device have been developed. The fault tolerant schemes developed is as follows: • Fault tolerant scheme for grid side converter by circulating reactive power between DFIM and 5-channel parallel connected converters • Fault tolerant scheme for rotor side converter based on dc-bus midpoint clamping Technique • Fault tolerant scheme for rotor side converter based on shared-leg re-configuration technique • Fault tolerant scheme for parallel connected converters based on module level redundancy   Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 
59 Computational feasibility studies on the development of high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems  The research activities conducted can be summarized as follows: • Structural analysis was conducted on the SMES coil to assess the levels of stress and strain exerted on the structure. • The investigation focused on mechanical failures resulting from thermal stresses, aiming to predict the performance of the SMES system under both room temperature and cryogenic conditions. • Electrical analysis was performed to estimate AC losses in the proposed work, providing insights into the efficiency of the SMES system. • Magnetic analysis was employed to calculate the Lorentz Forces acting on the SMES, contributing to a better understanding of its behavior. • Considering the total heat load generated by AC losses, efficient cooling strategies were developed for the cryocooling system to adequately compensate for the heat and ensure the overall efficiency of the SMES system.   Lovely Professional University, Punjab 
60 Development of gasification reactor system for conversion of multi fuel to syngas  In the present project three different designs for microwave plasma reactor were made for gasifying the multi-fuels viz a) Single torch reactor system (STRS) to feed pulverized particles through the core of the plasma flame, b) Perpendicular torch system with coaxial plasma flame configuration (PTRS), c) Vertical in-line torch system with sequential plasma flame configuration (VITS). The system (a) was designed for gasifying pulverized solid fuel particles and the systems (b) and (c) were designed to gasify bigger particles of size 6-8mm. Four microwave torches were made with the microwave source of 3KW and 2.4 GHz frequency for each torch. The final flame length obtained was about 3 inches and the diameter was about half inch. The temperature of the inner core of the flame was exceeding 1800 deg. C and the edge of the flame was about 600 deg. C. This was due to the low input wattage of the microwave source and by increasing the input wattage to higher levels will increase the plasma core and edge temperature. The gasification experiments were carried out in all the three reactors  MTD, CPRI, Bangalore 
61 Run-of-the-River low head micro hydroelectric system for off-grid microgrid operation  The PI explained that under the project an artificial vortex-type micro-hydel system for low head and low discharge conditions prevailed in Run of River Schemes is being developed to tap the hydropower energy in remote areas. All the components such as sump tank with multiple discharge pumps, secondary tank, channel system, vortex tank (2m diameter) with inlet and outlet flow controls, turbine blades, discharge chute, etc. have been optimized based on the CFD flow analysis. This system harnesses the energy contained within an artificially induced giant after vortex over a small head. Water flows tangentially into a cylindrical basin with an opening at the bottom. The combined effect of the localized low pressure at the central region and the circulation induced as a result of the tangential entry through inlet, causes the water to restructure into a vortex-like flow pattern. The potential energy of the entering water is entirely converted to kinetic energy and extracted through a vertical coaxial turbine coupled with a generator. A vortex-based power generation system for low head upto 2m and flow rates in the range of 120 to 400 LPS has been designed and developed. The parameters affecting the system's overall efficiency have been studied through different configurations. The maximum power output achieved in the system is 3.7 kw. The system's efficiency has been observed to be better than other commercial systems for the flow ranges studied. Commercial systems have been reported with a single input condition of head and flow. The system established in C.P.R.I. has been designed with flexibility for evaluating the performance of the vortex-based system under different parameters affecting the vortex power output and would provide information on selection of parameters for achieving optimum performance.  MTD, CPRI, Bangalore 
62 New generation Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) nano-composites with high UV shielding properties for Photovoltaic Modules  Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) nano-composites with high UV shielding properties have been developed and tested. The enhancement in thermal stability particularly up to the low conversion levels has been interpreted in terms of the barrier effect of silica particles on the O2 flow into the sample. The activation energies of degradation up to lower range of conversions have been determined by non–isothermal and isothermal kinetic analyses. The effects of interfacial and orientation polarization on the permittivity and the loss tangent have been studied by dielectric analyses. These have been correlated with the structures of various nanocomposites. An attempt has also been made to support the dielectric results by volume resistivity measurements, measurements of breakdown voltage, and swelling–deswelling kinetic results.  CDD (INS), CPRI, Bangalore  
63 Computational design and Development of Green Insulating fluids for power transformers: Renewable non-edible oil  As part of this project, an alternative insulating fluid for transformer applications has been developed, offering the following advantages: • The fluid is derived from pongamia oil using a single-stage percolation method, specifically designed for transformer application. • The percolation method employed is a straightforward and safe chemical technique. • The absorbent used in the percolation process can be recycled after being washed and dried, promoting sustainability and reducing waste. • The insulating fluids meet the requirements outlined in the IEC 62770 standard, ensuring their suitability for use in transformers and similar electrical equipment. DMD, CPRI, Bangalore
64 Development of vegetable ester based nano fluids for transformers It was reported that as part of the project, BCZT nanofluids were prepared using the oxalate precursor route. These nanofluids were subsequently subjected to comprehensive characterization, including tests for AC breakdown voltage (BDV), tan delta, resistivity, dielectric constant, flash point, viscosity, acidity, and thermal conductivity, following the standards set by ASTM/IEC/ISO. The results indicated that the nanofluids did not adversely affect any of the physical properties tested. However, they exhibited an improvement in both thermal stability and electrical properties. DMD, CPRI, Bangalore 
65 Development of test method for studies on pollution performance on composite insulators to be used on DC systems  The following were achieved under the project: • Created test facility to perform artificial pollution test by solid layer method including leakage current acquisition system • Developed a procedure for application of pollution layer of desired salt deposition density on the surface of composite insulators. More-or-less uniform pollution layer is obtained by dipping method. Developed procedure is validated on different composite insulator samples. As per STRI guidelines, transfer of hydrophobicity of composite insulator was observed before application of slurry. • Proposed a test method to perform solid layer artificial pollution test by including rapid flashover test proposed by M/s. STRI Laboratory • As per CIGRE 555, new test method is assessed/validated by Repeatability, Representativeness and Reproducibility • Standard deviation of U50% flashover voltage of proposed test method is 2.5 to 5% and no flashover was obtained before 15 minutes – Hence, as per CIGRE 555 proposed method is considered as repeatable • Pattern of leakage current acquired during withstand test is similar to CIGRE 555 leakage current pattern. More-or-less, flashover pattern is also same as that of guidelines. So, representativeness of proposed method is proved as per CIGRE 555 • Proposed Pollution test procedure – validated on 33 kV, 66 kV Composite insulators and also on Porcelain, Glass disc insulators – found satisfactory as per CIGRE 555. Tests was performed with 0.1 mg/cm2 and 0.2 mg/cm2 salt deposition density.   UHVRL, Hyderabad, CPRI Unit 
66 Performance improvement of steam generator through the enhanced hydrophobic surface  This research aims to improve the two-phase heat transfer characteristics of water tube boilers, which have been relatively neglected in previous studies. The dry-out phenomenon, a challenging issue in these boilers, can be overcome using the riffling technique, although it leads to increased pressure drop. Recent advancements in passive techniques offer hope for enhancing heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop. To achieve these objectives, a state-of-the-art test section was developed to visualize vapor bubble formation along the length of the test surfaces. Experiments on four different test tube surfaces revealed that the porous-coated surface exhibited the highest two-phase heat transfer performance compared to the other surfaces investigated.  Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar 
67 High-Temperature erosion characteristics of boiler tube materials of subcritical and supercritical Thermal power plants and prediction of critical erosion regions through CFD modeling  As no facility is available to evaluate high-temperature erosion resistance (HTE) under simulated field conditions, the design and fabrication of an indigenous test rig was carried out under the project. Characterization of presently used boiler tube materials and thermal spray processed hard coatings were evaluated under a range of temperature conditions up to 650 degree C. Furthermore, the mechanism involved in the erosion process of different materials was analysed. Based on the laboratory results, the coatings that have shown optimum erosion resistance have been considered for the field trial in an economizer component of a 210 MW utility boiler at RTPS, Raichur. In addition, CFD-based actual set-up and boiler modelling was carried out to identify critical erosion regions in a typical 500 MW boiler.   MTD, CPRI, Bangalore 
68 Design and Development of 5m long single phase HTS cable  In this project, a 5 m long single-phase HTS power cable was designed and developed, with a rating of 11 kV and 1 kA. The design and development steps were shared, including the characterization of the HTS tapes used under AC and DC excitation. A tape winding mechanism was created to wind multiple HTS tapes simultaneously, and the cold dielectric used for insulation was characterized. The effect of moisture content on the dielectric characteristics was studied. Detailed dimensions, drawings, and component information were provided. The developed 5 m HTS power cable was joined with a 1 m HTS power cable from Phase I, and tests were conducted. AC losses were experimentally determined, and a sub-cooling unit was designed, developed, and tested to cool the HTS power cable using sub-cooled LN2. A cryogenic turbine-based flow meter was calibrated using the developed sub-cooling unit. The HTS power cable underwent leak tests and separate instrumentation tests under AC and DC excitation. The cable was able to withstand high voltage for 6 hours without dielectric breakdown.  Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 
69 Design and Development of RF sensors for identification and localization of incipient discharges in GIS  The proposal successfully delivered two key outcomes: UHF sensors with enhanced sensitivity for detecting partial discharge (PD) in Gas Insulated Substations (GIS), and algorithms for classifying UHF signals associated with common PD activities in GIS. These deliverables have been achieved successfully. The developed UHF sensors and defect identification methodology can be utilized by power utilities and manufacturers. The gained technical expertise in designing and fabricating UHF sensors can be shared with competent engineers to ensure successful implementation in the industry. This knowledge transfer is particularly significant for advancing GIS, which is still in its early stages of development in our country.  Indian Institute of Madras, Chennai 
70 Design & Development of a Cost-effective & Energy-efficient Grid –connected Pumped Hydro System employed with Sensor-less PMBLDCM  Conventional pumped storage systems utilized constant-speed synchronous machines, resulting in reduced efficiency. To address this issue, doubly fed induction machines (DFIM) were introduced. However, DFIM has limitations including the need to operate within specific speed limits to avoid stressing the converter, higher ohmic losses leading to lower efficiency, the system being costly and bulky due to the need for appropriate cooling methods, and increased maintenance costs. In this project, a new generation FPGA-controlled sensor-less permanent magnet BLDC machine has been developed to overcome these constraints. This system designed showed satisfactory capability for pumping the water in to the storage system.  National Institute of Technology, Meghalaya 
71 Model Order Reduction for Simulation Acceleration in Power Electronics  A platform independent algorithm has been developed for Model Order Reduction. Memory savings and substantial improvements in simulation speeds have been achieved.   National Institute of Technology, Srinagar 
72 Development of nanocrystalline materials for solid oxide fuel cells working at 600 degree C  In line with the project's objective, a nanocrystalline material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was successfully developed and subjected to testing. The NSCFO cathode exhibited a high power density of 776 mW/cm2 at 800 °C. Moreover, the humidified hydrogen demonstrated a maximum current density of 0.470 A/cm2, and the open circuit voltage (OCV) measured 1.018 V.   N,Karunya University, Coimbatore 
73 Bio-processing of coal industrial effluent and coal fines recovery using aquatic plants and phototrophs  Under this project:  Bioprocess technology were developed to evaluate the potential of Azolla and Lemna to treat coal washery effluent (CWE) as well as to study the impact on the biochemical changes of the Azolla and Lemna.  After bio-treatment the aquatic biomass was tested for its utilization for biofuel such as bio-methane and bio-ethanol.  The harvested biomass also used for fertilizer, poultry feed and fish feed.   CSIR-CMERI, Dhanbad 
74 Development of Electricity Based Clean and Efficient Cooking Technology Suitable for Indian Cookware  In accordance with the project objectives, a 2x2KW induction cooker has been created, equipped with two pans specifically designed for different types of cookware. One pan is designed for flat surface vessels, while the other is suitable for curved surface vessels. The design is to aid in cooking Indian Dishes through induction cooker.   Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 
75 Design and Development of Efficient Induction Cooker suitable for Vessels of Different Material   A novel induction heating device has been engineered to efficiently heat non-ferromagnetic vessels such as aluminum and copper. The prototype of the device has been successfully developed and rigorously tested in the laboratory.  NIT Warangal 
76 Transmission Line Protection in the Presence of Bulk Solar Photo Voltaic Power Plants  Different control schemes adopted in the renewable energy plant interfacing converters, introduce non-homogeneity in the fault paths in the line connecting such a source. This may result in the erroneous operation of the fault classifier that uses local superimposed current and voltage data. An adaptive fault type classification technique is proposed for such non-homogeneous situations in the presence of renewables. Using local voltage and current data, the sequence current angles in the faulted path are calculated by determining the pure-fault impedance of the renewable plant at every instant following the fault detection and applied for fault type classification. Considering the grid to be strong, a distance relaying technique is proposed to calculate the line impedance up to the fault point from the relay by determining the phase angle associated with the faulted loop current. Thereby it obtains the correct protection decision for lines connecting SPPPs even with conventional fixed zone settings. The improved performance of distance relay employing such estimated superimposed components is observed for faults during power swing with changes in fault type, fault location, fault resistance, swing frequency, and fault inception angle. The algorithm also works for different levels of penetration of renewable resources in a system.  Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 
77 Development of plasma torch for efficient disposal of municipal solid waste  A prototype of the plasma torch has been designed and fabricated at CSIR-CIMFR. This Project represents the design of a plasma torch for producing stable and continuous thermal plasma plume. It has been observed that after design, fabrication and experimentation it is achieved a 30cm long stable plasma plume at gas flow rate of 20-30LPM, by applying of 55V, 220A power supply. It is also observed that plasma torch temperature achieved about 3500K.The developed plasma torch technology can cover a volume 40cm in diameter with up to 30cm long plasma plume, and it will be beneficial for waste destruction.  CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 
78 Design, Implementation and Analysis of Wireless Power Transfer and PV System for Battery Charging of Passenger e-Bus  • A dual input buck-boost type dc–dc converter to integrate various sources such as solar PV and wireless charger is reported in this study. The proposed DIBBC is suitable for battery charging from the different V–I characteristic sources either individually or simultaneously. • The state-space equation is derived from the different modes of operation and the final small signal model of the converter is obtained. • The simulation results validate the effective integration of the input sources using the proposed converter.   National Institute of Technology, Trichy 
79 Establishing Novel Erosive Wear Test Facility for Testing of Materials Used in Hydro-turbine Components  The hydro power plants accross the world face severe erosion due to silt and cavitation induced erosion, which leads to a drastic reduction in the overall efficiency of the hydro power plant. Thus novel coatings are being developed to mitigate the effect of the erosion. One important requirement in developing newer materials and coatings is to test these materials in a controlled yet accelerated environment where combined effects of silt and cavitation erosion may be produced. Thus under this project a stand-alone facility to bring out the combined effects of silt and cavitation has been developed and demonstrated. The developed test facility can also be utilized for observation and generalization of various effects of different kind of cavitation of a wide range of materials. This approach will help in arriving at the suitable mechanistic model for erosion which will help the utilities and manufacturers. This facility can be made accessible to researchers from other institutions that may require the use of such facilities.  IIT Madras 
80 Investigation on flow instabilities in draft tube at off-design operation of hydraulic turbines  Under this project a small turbine test rig is developed to investigate the formation and mitigation of Rotating Vortex Rope (RVR). The rig is designed to inquorate the provisions of air and water jet injection to mitigate the RVR. Modification of the runner cone was required to incorporate the active mitigation arrangements. Three runner cone profiles were designed and the best one was fabricated for axial water jet injection. Their influence on the flow field was investigated and compared with the original runner cone The main purpose of the investigation was to find the flow instabilities specific to the conical diffuser part of the elbow draft tube and to evaluate the active (fluid Injection) mitigation method. The air was injected into the turbine at the periphery of the draft tube. The air injection targets the low-frequency pressure pulsations and dampens them by softening the RVR core. Air injection provides some cushion to the RVR effect and provides a specific broadening range liar turbine operation. Water jet injection targets the stagnant area having decelerated flow and minimum specific energy, i.e., at the center of the draft tube cone where RVR forms. Water jet injection momentum penetrates the stagnant central region and suppresses the formation of RVR and related problems. The effect of parameters like water injection amount, water jet nozzle area has been investigated and reported.   IIT Roorkee 
81 Development of intumescent fire retardant nano-composites for medium voltage cable sheathing applications  Cable sheaths, which serve as protective coverings for power cables of low and medium voltage, are undergoing a transition away from PVC due to concerns about toxicity and flammability. This project focuses on developing fire retardant nanocomposites specifically designed for medium voltage cable sheaths. An intumescent fire retardant (IFR) has been created, with surface-modified additives and a synthesized charring agent. Various combinations of thermoplastics, including a thermoplastic elastomer, have been formulated. The fire retardant additives have been optimized for both mechanical properties and fire retardancy. Modified MWCNT, ammonium polyphosphate, synthesized charring agent, and talc have been incorporated into HDPE, LLDPE, PP composites, along with EVA and EPDM. Achieving fire retardancy in these composites requires the addition of 10% of IFR additives. Cable sheath molds have been manufactured, and trials have been conducted using HDPE-based composites.  TERI Bangalore 
82 Study of photo-biological safety of LED lamps and luminaire  In this project, the first step involved purchasing different types of light source samples from the Indian market in Bengaluru, Karnataka, between 2018 and 2019. Subsequently, a total of 66 samples (including 45 LED samples) were subjected to photobiological hazard emission tests using the IDR300-PSL with a double monochromator system at the Central Power Research Institute in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Based on the experimental data collected, the evaluation and classification of risk groups were determined for each light source.The study conducted by CPRI has provided valuable insights and identified gaps in awareness regarding potential risks to human health from LED light sources. The results indicate that LED sources do pose a photobiological hazard, but its impact may not be very high. Most LEDs fall into the RG 1 category, which signifies a low risk of photobiological hazards. Therefore, normal usage of LED products by the general healthy population does not lead to adverse health effects. The summary of the test results for various types of LED light sources reveals that they pose actinic UV hazard and blue light hazard, placing them in the RG 1 category. The maximum recommended exposure time for the eyes and skin to these LED sources is 2.8 hours.However, street lights operating with DC voltage may exhibit additional infrared hazards along with actinic UV hazards, falling under the RG 2 category of risk groups. The maximum recommended exposure time for the RG 2 category is 10 seconds of visual contact to prevent damage to the retina and skin. It is therefore necessary for LED manufacturers to incorporate classification and labeling for LED products emitting photobiological hazards before selling them in the market.  ERED, CPRI Bangalore 

For further information on any of the above projects please feel free to send us a mail at mvrao [at] cpri [dot] in